The upright works on vegetable elements on the tree, should be developed only by trained people, with the proper formation and equipment, to be able to work in a safe and effective way on them, professional trimmers..
- 1 Tree Access Technique
- 2 Tree Cares
- 3 Types of Prunes
- 3.1 FORMATION PRUNE (PREVENTIVE PRUNING OR OF ADEQUACY TO THE ENVIRONMENT)
- 3.1.1 1. Elongation and straightness of the trunk
- 3.1.2 1. Adjust the height under the crown or treetop and derived shapes. Rise of the crown .
- 3.1.3 1. Prepare the woodmen in a semi-free way. Formation in buckets and stems
- 3.1.4 1. Prepare the woodmen from a vault. Formation of a tree with an extended or enlarged artificial pore and creation of an extended shape.
- 3.1.5 1. Formation of a deflated tree and other derived forms
- 3.2 MAINTENANCE PRUNES
- 3.3 ADAPTATION PRUNING
- 3.4 RESTRUCTURING PRUNING
- 3.5 SAFETY PRUNES
- 3.6 SANITARY PRUNES
- 3.7 EXCEPTIONAL PRUNES
- 3.8 BREAKING PRUNING
- 3.9 GREEN PRUNES
- 3.10 TOPIARY STYLE
- 3.11 FRUIT TREE PRUNING
- 3.1 FORMATION PRUNE (PREVENTIVE PRUNING OR OF ADEQUACY TO THE ENVIRONMENT)
- 4 WHERE TO CUT WHEN COMPLETELY NECESSARY?
Tree Access Technique
To carry out the pruning tree works, NaturClimb uses different techniques to access the tree. These techniques are adapted to every particular case.
We use the prussik nods or mechanical elements. According to the upright displacement, we carry out the technique of “foot lock”.
All these techniques are done thanks to the use of a mechanical blocker, a very innovative product in the market (TAZ LOV2).
In many cases, we can add the usage of a lifting basket if the sanitary and mechanical state of the tree is not clear to work on the tree. This is specially done when we have the presence of xylophagous fungus which may attack the root system.
In any case, we recommend as a security measure, the installation of a rope only to access the tree. It may also be used as a secondary rappel if needed or in case of an accident, another arborist or a fire fighter may access to the point with the help of the rope, independently to the arborist’s rappel.
We access to any part of the tree to carry out the work efficiently and maximizing the security measures. The tree techniques used are adapted to the customer’s needs.
NaturClimb respects the biology of every particular tree, depending on the species, its physiological and also its anatomic state.
Treetop reduction of a young oak, due to a close swimming pool.
We are height prunes professionals , thus, we cannot forget that the tree does not need as a rule, our intervention, because they can eliminate the branches they not need, minimizing future consequences, related to healing and growing.
A common example is, the life-less branches, which normally need, because they create a risky situation in an urban area, the arborist intervention. In numerous cases, where the branches are big, a solution to avoid the cut may be the installation of artificial hold back system, make out of wires and ropes.
The first recommendation to select a tree species, is to make sure it could grow properly, and it will get used to the place and expectations. The arborist normally says that, when the chainsaw is started, is because previously a wrong action has been carried out. The good selection of the tree is an essential element of this phase.
The vegetable species, have a characteristic color in every season, a type of leaf, fruit, etc. they have also a shape, height and volume genetically related.
Select properly the tree species for the place you wish it to grow. It will allow a free growing process. It will be a success and you will save future expenses.
Types of Prunes
FORMATION PRUNE (PREVENTIVE PRUNING OR OF ADEQUACY TO THE ENVIRONMENT)
It is the sort of prune which conditions the growing process of the tree, to get adapted to the conditions that it is going to find in the future. We may distinguish two types, the formation in the nursery and the one in situ.
These prunes aim to balance, in the early stages of the tree, the height under the treetop, (treetop lifting), regarding the usage of the available room and spaces under and around the tree, the structure formation of the tree, the symmetry of the shapes of the trees in the same formation, get rid of wrongly oriented branches, or giving the tree a shape that let us prune it in future occasions if required.
We should not forget that the kinder the prunes are, the best will be the tree reaction to them.
We may classify as “aggressive” the prunes that remove, according to the specie, a diameter of the branch over 5/10 cm and a volume of its leaves over 20%.
That is why, making planned and organized prunes at the proper season, will be reflected as a future result and strength of the elements we are working with.
Once you have made the decision to plant tree, the training size is the one that NaturClimb uses to direct and/or adapt the tree according to the shape you want to obtain. It can be said that in the early stages of life, the vegetable is more suitable to guide it. It is done with cuts that will not harm you or traumatize you as much as if they are performed as an adult. It’s more malleable.
The training size is usually carried out at least 2 to 3 years after the plantation and final installation in the chosen place. Previously it is not recommended because of the stress suffered in the movement operations from the greenhouse and plantation. There will be a loss of branches and/or roots, cuts, etc.
Due to the great importance of training pruning, NaturClimb is considerably extended in this section. He does this by using scientific sources, techniques and his own training and professional experience.
NaturClimb advises you to take all necessary precautions to protect young trees from wounds. In the long term these can have serious consequences on the health and strength of the adult tree.
Certain pruning, especially those performed in a nursery, can cause points of mechanical weakness. These should be corrected by other pruning. Examples of bark include, irregularity of trunk conicity, etc.
Certain species are more likely than others to the included bark. For example, Tilia sp., Robinia pseudoacacia, Fagus sylvatica, Populus sp., Salix sp., Sophora japonica, Celtis australis, etc.
As it is not possible to remove all axes with bark included in the case of these species, NaturClimb advises you to remove only potentially dangerous structures.
We must not forget that the less aggressive the pruning, the better the tree’s reaction to these. By aggressive we can understand those that eliminate, depending on the species, a branch diameter greater than 5-10 cm and a volume of leaves greater than 20% or tertiary from the treetop.
Therefore, carrying out planned and adequate training pruning over time will influence the future state and vigor of your plant heritage. The proposed training pruning, following scientific criteria, adapts to these premises.
The objectives of training pruning can be diverse and varied:
1. Elongation and straightness of the trunk
The righteousness of a log is one thing and its development is another. In certain species, all axes are plagiotropic, including guidance. That is, the young stem consisting of a stacking of modules is not straight. Righteousness is not affirmed until some time has passed.
As an example, we can find, in many cases as ornamental trees in alignments in urban environments; albizzias, linden, robinias or false acacias, almeces, Gleditsia or acacias of three thorns, sophores, trees of judas, elms, etc. Pruning of species with plagiotropic axes should not be precipitated. Many forks reabsorb themselves over time. Cutting a competitive branch of the trunk is often tantamount to suppressing the natural continuation of the trunk. This produces an effect contrary to the desired effect.
On the contrary, pruning formation should be as early as possible in the case of trees with monopodial growth. All axes are formed, except accident, by a unique apical grinder. Monopodial and with orthotropic guide, such as maples, ash, chestnut trees, wild cherry trees, alders, spruans, fir trees, pines, etc. Some straightened branches or forks can irretrievably reach the straightness of the trunk.
Bananas and chestnut, the competitive branches of the guide, as long as the environment is conducive to growth, are not a danger to the righteousness of the trunk.
In quercíneas such as common oak, alba oak, red roble, pubescent oak, melojo oak, coscoja, holm oak, whining, cork oak, etc., it is only when the fork seems to persist for more than two years when pruning is to be pruned.
You can help weeping trees (mulberry, birch, willow, etc.) rise. The most ascending branches are regularly selected and the bending branches are suppressed. Once again, we could ask the question of the correct choice of variety of the chosen species. When choosing a weeping size, the most logical thing would be to favor with accompanying and reasoned pruning, its natural silhouette.
The main cultural operations that NaturClimb performs to accompany and ensure the elongation and righteousness of the trunk are:
- Intuiting the guide: straightening by ligature the bent guides.
- Release of the guide: suppression of the branches that come into competition.
- Forking: selection of one shaft and suppression of the other stems of a fork.
- Replacing the dominated guide: selecting a side branch and straightening by tutoring, suppressing the dominated guide.
- Reconstitution of the guide by miter fixation: miter straightening on the miter of a lateral branch intended to reconstitute a missing or non-existent guide.
- Suppression of an opposite bud.
- Suppression of root graft shoots on the trunk or neck, and root buds.
- Pinching, tipping or curvature towards the ground of the tip of competitive branches with the guide to decrease their growth.
- Cut ground and select a trunk among the new shoots in case you cannot form the trunk in another way, for example that the main trunk is damaged by a crack, a chancro, etc.
Pinos/ Pinus sp.
Abetos/ Abies sp.
Píceas/ Picea sp.
Ginkgo/ Ginkgo biloba
Cipreses/ Cupressus sp.
Araucarias/ Araucaria sp.
Tejo/ Taxus baccata
Secuoyas/ Sequoia sempervirens y Sequoiadendron giganteum
Fresnos/ Fraxinus sp.
Chopos/ Populus sp.
Cerezo/ Prunus avium
Haya/ Fagus sylvatica
Olmos/ Ulmus sp.
Plátano/ Platanus sp.
Tilo/ Tilia sp.
Acacia tres espinas/ Gleditsia triacanthos
Robinias/ Robinia pseudoacacia
Abedules/ Betula sp.
Sóforas/ Sophora japonica
Almez/ Celtis australis
Zelkova/ Zelkova sp.
Árbol de la seda/ Albizia julibrissins
Árbol de Judas/ Cercis siliquastrum
Castaño/ Castanea sativa
Magnolios/ Magnolia sp.
Tulipero de Virginia/ Liriodendron tulipifera
Castaño de indias/ Aesculus sp.
Nispero de Japon/ Eriobotrya japonica
Nogales/ Juglans sp.
Arces/ Acer sp.
Mixed species correspond to trees of which a part is monopodial. For example, the trunk and the rest sympathidial. The trunk of the magnolia is orthotropic monopodium while the branches are plagiotropic sympathics whose modules flourish terminally.
1. Adjust the height under the crown or treetop and derived shapes. Rise of the crown .
NaturClimb exposes you to situations where you want a space under the top of your garden, terrace or transit area or gauge height. Formation of a vault to allow the circulation of cars and at the same time the release of a facade. As an example of a derivative form.
With exceptions, only guided trees should be planted. Trees grafted on the head, preformed trees for a screen, etc. The desired height lowers the crown is generally much higher than that of the plant when purchased or coming from the nursery.
Form the tree from its youth. If the crown rise by suppression of the low branches is too late, we are exposed to the risk of having to make large wounds or unwanted cuts due to the healing capacity of our tree.
If the height rise occurs too soon, damage to the thickening of the trunk and its elongation is caused.
Elevation of the crown. 1. Progressive pruning of the low branches without exceeding the third of the height of the tree. 2-3. Formation of the forked trunk, suppression of competitive branches. Source: E. Michau
As a general rule, NaturClimb advises to anticipate the rise of crown by selectively removing the thicker branches inside the temporary cup. This preparation of the rise itself limits the risks of outbreaks. At each step, the part of the pruned trunk should not in principle exceed the lower third of the tree. Not suffering the upper two-thirds more than selective branch suppression.
In the case of resinous, referring mainly to conifers, it must preserve at least three floors of upper branches. So as not to adversely affect growth. Observation of wound coating speed and development of shoots after a crown rise allows to regulate the intensity and pace of operations.
A successful pruning will recognize it by the rapid healing of the cuts and the limited appearance of shoots. NaturClimb reminds you and advises in case the tree has not completely closed the healing lip, leave at least one bud. The circulation of the sap through it will help precisely to close and completely seal the wound suffered by the cut.
The main cultural operations that NaturClimb performs to regulate the height under the crown, derived shapes and/or crown elevation are:
- Choice of height under the crown. Define a gauge.
- Trunk formation: forked and suppression of competitive branches.
- selective of the already thick branches in the temporal cup, anticipating the rise of crown
- of the branches too close to each other in the temporary cup selectively, anticipating the crown rise.
- progressively of the lower branches of the canopy, anticipating the crown rise without exceeding one third of the total height of the tree.
- of the competitive branches: shoots on the trunk and root buds.
- rootstock shoots.
1. Prepare the woodmen in a semi-free way. Formation in buckets and stems
With this type of pruning of formation, NaturClimb proposes that once the trunk has reached the chosen height, it will be to let the trees express their natural architecture. This type of training pruning can be supplemented by the criteria and operations cited in the previous two cases.
In the case of a formation of woodmen in cup or glass, widely used for example in prunaceas cultivars and ancient vineyards, the disadvantage is the impossibility of subsequently raising the crown (that is why it was used in the vineyards). Near the houses, it is advisable to keep a minimum distance of two meters between the glass and the facades.
Prune in a glass of a bushy species.
The main cultural operations that NaturClimb performs to prepare the wood to form in bucket and / or stem are:
- Suppression of the branches that form an angle too closed with the trunk, and of the branches poorly oriented or annoying for our target set.
- Cut over a yolk or branch in the desired direction to guide a future main branch.
- Suppression of branches too close to each other to stagger future main branches.
- Suppression of the guide and selection of future main branches for a bucket formation.
- Cut to the ground in winter and select future logs for a vessel formation.
Bucket training. 1. Selection of the main branches and regulation of their vigor. Suppression of the groin. 2. Stretching of the main branches. Suppression of buds on the trunk. 3. Selection of secondary branches. Source.: E. Michau.
1. Prepare the woodmen from a vault. Formation of a tree with an extended or enlarged artificial pore and creation of an extended shape.
By extended form, NaturClimb defines the artificialization of the tree’s aerial system on a plane or the closest thing to removing the treetop volume itself. If it is horizontal it is a vault and if it is vertical it is a palisade or trellis.
Assembling an extended shape is a delicate and hard-working action, and therefore is often costly.
In certain species, the branches of the same tree or different feet can weld to each other (it is called anastomosis), as is the case of bananas, lindens, beech, etc.
The main cultural operations that NaturClimb performs in time to prepare a parasolate porte are:
- Early suppression of the guide, selection of main branches and regulation of its vigor. This promotes its growth on a horizontal plane.
- Suppression of the shoots of the guide, stretching of the main branches favoring their horizontal growth. Suppression or reorientation of poorly oriented branches.
- Once the wood and structure of the tree is well formed, the tasks that will be carried out will be the suppression of more oriented branches and the selection of the lateral branches of the main branches. In short, a clarification.
Formation of a tree with an extended or parasolate artificial pore. 1. Early suppression of the guide in A. Selection of the main branches. Regulation of its vigor favoring its growth on a horizontal plane in B. 2. Suppression of the shoots of the guide in A; stretching of the main branches favoring their horizontal growth in B and suppression of the poorly oriented branches. 3. Suppression of poorly oriented branches, selection of the lateral branches of the main branches. Source: E. Michau
The main cultural operations that NaturClimb performs to prepare the woodmen of a vault are:
- Ensure the elongation and straightness of the trunk to the desired height, then remove the guide.
- Select the horizontal main branches and stagger them to the desired height.
- Suppress the poorly oriented branches and gradually raise the crown to the selected main branches.
- Orient and stretch the main branches by controlling the orientation of the sacasavias.
- Suppress all vertical or poorly oriented shoots and suckers along the trunk and main branches.
Formation of a vault on cat heads. Source: B.Hespel.
The main cultural operations that NaturClimb performs to prepare the woodmen of a palisade are:
- Pruning operations are guided by a structure composed of stakes bound by threads or intermediate rods. This structure can be entirely metallic or include wooden parts and cane rods. Particular attention should be paid to the risks of injury that may be caused by guardian friction and ligatures pressure.
NaturClimb is not conducive to the use of whitewashing or use of mastic paste of wounds. If you have the case of an alignment, NaturClimb advises a planting frame not exceeding 4-6 meters.
NaturClimb reminds you that although all cultural actions are carried out correctly, the costs of installation, training and above all annual maintenance will be very high. The budget, and especially its duration, are important limitations for this type of training.
1. Formation of a deflated tree and other derived forms
NaturClimb reminds you not to confuse a dismoteened tree with a tree mutilated by radical cuts. The formation of a mowing tree begins from the youth of the tree. The scless trees and other rural forms (escamonda trees, carvings, renewers, etc.) appear more and more in the ornamental landscape today due to the extent of the cities.
Its management requires respect for traditional agricultural practices. Understand why this type of cultural actions were carried out, to provide food for livestock in the summer and wood period. Therefore, keep the periocity of the pruning once fixed.
There are numerous cases of tree species that we are used to recognizing in rural settings. For example, Fraxinus spp., Quercus spp., Salix spp., Morus spp., Tilia spp., etc.
Willow head formation by desmoche. 1. Branch disheading and pruning. 2. Pruning of outbreaks every two to three years. 3. Formation of a large wart, consisting of the accumulation of the healing rings. Source: D. Mansion.
NaturClimb takes advantage of this section to remind you of the difference between brinzal and chirpial, that is, a population or wooded mass that comes from seed or from shoots of strain or root. The training model is completely different, in the case of the reception or chirpial, in a very small space will appear a high density of tree feet practically joined at the base, this has been due to the continuous reception to which it has been subjected to generate, especially wood for firewood, i.e. heating and cooking.
The main cultural operations that NaturClimb performs to form a desmoqueled tree are:
- Ensure the elongation and straightness of the trunk to the desired height, then suppress the guide (heading) as well as all branches.
- Suppress all shoots along the trunk, two to three years after the previous operation; the new outbreaks formed are in turn suppressed after 2 to 3 years. Warts will form, consisting of the accumulation of the healing rings.
Thus, more than five years after the removal of the guide, the deflated tree is formed. Outbreaks were normally suppressed every nine years in the camp, which corresponded to the usual length of a lease on the estate. Currently, NaturClimb advises reducing this periocity between three and six years maximum, to preserve the greatest possible reserves in the tree and avoid too large cuts.
Salix’s de-mochating dawn. On the adjoining wall you can see the rods being dry for use in the construction of plant elements.
Scadered trees form like weedy trees. The guide is not suppressed and develops into a small glass. The lateral branches are regularly cut along the trunk.
A final goal of training pruning would be to prepare the woodmen of a pyramid and other conical forms artificially. NaturClimb does not intend to extend much further in this section. It should be remembered that in the varieties and cultivars of our nurseries there are trees whose shape and volume correspond to the objectives sought.
Prunes of lifeless, sprouts and bad oriented branches removal.
After the youth phase, where we can conveniently carry out the pruning of training, we can ask ourselves several questions. Has the pruning of formation been carried out conveniently? What kind or criteria has been adopted? Do we want to perpetuate this criterion in time? This is where the answer to your question would appear. Do you want to keep the previously adopted pattern or not? Did it run correctly getting the desired result?
NaturClimb will present you with a calendar of actions of your woodland. If you do not want to maintain it, NaturClimb will propose another type of pruning: adaptation, conversion and restructuring. As long as the phytosanitary status of the tree allows it.
Other questions would derive directly from no training pruning. The shape of the tree is completely free because it has been expressed without any intervention. It is as is often the point in rural or forest areas where well-spaced specimens have been developed without any intervention. Except those imposed by nature itself: wind, snow, hail, drought, lightning, etc.
In these cases, NaturClimb also performs maintenance pruning interventions. Dead branches are removed at risk of falling or fallen dead branches that are supported on the tree structure.
In certain cases of isolated specimens, we may find ourselves being pierced by lightning. The effect of the beam produces a large longitudinal fissure along the trunk. This can cause it to be hollowed out by compartmentalizing the damaged area, with a high risk of falling of the specimen.
It is advised to at least beacon and signal the fall hazard zone.
Another type of action that can accompany these tasks on large specimens, is the installation of artificial maintenance system. These are done to avoid making large cuts, respecting as much as possible the dynamics of the tree.
From NaturClimb we remind you and advise that the performances be performed as staggered as possible in time. Always from observation to the reaction of the tree to these. Above all, faced with the custom today of obtaining products or services with a simple mouse click or in front of the usual that, unfortunately, has become, to see structures of healthy and vigorous trees, emaciated after a day of work with sharp and powerful chainsaws.
Ask the treemaker to explain what actions, how and why you will perform them. Demand what future impact it will have on its future development. NaturClimb advises you to stay away from radical solutions. Today hairdressers are frequented, to take care of their hair and the physical appearance. The treats works in yes like the hairdresser; instead of taking care of your hair, take care of the foliage of the trees.
There are certain regions in European countries where the use of chainsaws is prohibited. For pruning jobs, tree trees can only work with short-hand saws and pruning scissors. This limits the size of the cut to be made and reduces contamination.
The objectives of conservation pruning may be:
1. Maintain a semi-free shape while preserving the health and solidity of the tree
We are at the point where training pruning has been carried out that have practically preserved the biology of the tree element. Therefore, it will be important to take into account that the farther away the tree’s shape is from its freeform, the more energy will have to be spent to maintain it, and the faster the speed of development, that is, the faster it will move away from the established shape. The nature and rhythm of these pruning will depend on the two factors above as well as the phytosanitary status of the tree and the uses and practices that are carried out in the place, ensuring the safety of people and property.
Cedar pierced longitudinally by lightning.
The main cultural operations that NaturClimb performs in the maintenance pruning work on a free or semi-free form are:
- Choosing the suckers to delete on the trunk and at the base of the main branches. There is no need to eliminate all repeating units, these in many cases represent the future tree and usually play a very important role in large structures to stagger the flow of sap.
- Suppression of root shoots and rootstock shoots.
- Suppression of climbing and parasitic plants, with exceptions.
- Recovery of broken branches, old cuts poorly made and stocons.
- Suppression of dead or damaged branches with risk of breakage and/or fall.
- Suppression of chancros and other diseases if it results.
Maintenance pruning on a semi-free shape during the winter period in oaks. Luberon, France.
According to current scientific studies, there are species, such as some of the genus Quercus, that have the need to generate and develop with a quantity of dead wood coming from the branches in their structure. In conservation pruning work carried out by NaturClimb in a wooded mass of Quercus alba in El Luberón, la Provence (France), it has been found in years after these works, that the oaks have continued to generate and keeping a minimum level of dead branches over the cup. While some branches had died from the effect of the strong, dominant mistral winds, in others it was rather the structure of the tree that had left them to die for no apparent cause.
Sanitation pruning work on the top of a Halep pine. Elimination of dead branches and cutting with the angle and at the appropriate insertion site of old pruning.
When it comes to clearing the cup, work that can be done both in winter and summer (green pruning), NaturClimb advises you to continue with the same criteria already defined. Perform the work in a staggered way, all pruning temporarily weakens the remaining branches, just as a very strong clearing in a forest causes the breakage of sharply isolated thin trees. The elimination of a significant foliar volume hinders the thickening of the main branches and slows their solidification.
1. Maintain a structured shape on cat’s heads
A cat or willow head is an excrement resulting from repeated pruning at the same site, causing a series of healing rings fused together. All structured (artificial) shapes can be included in the cat heads method.
NaturClimb reminds you that this area is a privileged place for the reserves of the tree provided that you do not change the pruning regularity, that is, once they are established NaturClimb advises you to continue pruning work during the winter with a maximum regularity between one and three years, depending on the vigor of the tree and above all, do not cut in the future the structures formed.
NaturClimb advises increasing the number of cat heads from the formation of the tree to decrease the caliber of the trees and therefore the weight and time you can perform on the fork or insertion, reduce the growth of the shoots and pruning the wounds, thus limiting the appearance of suckers between the heads. The minimum distance that NaturClimb advises between two cat heads is 40-50 cm, because below this distance there will be many cases of mortality.
Conservation on cat’s heads. 1. A single head over A1 or scoff tree 2. Heads over A1 and A2 3. up to A3 4. up to A4. Increasing the number of heads is to decrease the caliber of the heads (less weight), the vigor of the shoots (easier cutting), the pruning of the wounds (faster scarring) and the re-growths between the heads. Source: B. Hespel.
The main cultural operations that NaturClimb performs in the maintenance pruning work on a structure or artificialized shape on cat heads are:
- Cut the shoots one by one taking into account not altering the cat heads.
- Suppress the suckers on the trunk and along the main branches.
- Suppress dead wood.
- In case of cat heads altered or dominated by their neighbors, anticipate their replacement by selecting new shoots.
While the species to which we are most accustomed to see this type of structure are bananas, linden and mulberry trees, these can also develop on robinias, sophorages, elms, pears, country maple, beech, etc. It is inadvisable to perform it on birch trees, poplars, poplars, ailantos, etc.
From NaturClimb we promote the structure in pyramid or “tonnelle”, because it respects the apical dominance and allows the lower branches to expand. In most cases, we find formations where all the cat heads are at the same height.
3. Maintain a structured shape by prolongation or equal cutting
Extension and matching cutting techniques allow to maintain a shape without producing cat heads, but the result is that the crowns increase significantly from year to year volume. Maintenance of a gauge requires resizing pruning.
Matched cuts can be machined and are practiced once or twice each year, pruning summer and/or winter. Pruning by prolongation is done manually in winter, in case the tree does not have excessive vigor, if it can be done every 2 or four years.
The even cuts are mainly used for screens and derived shapes and NaturClimb does not usually perform this type of work, but if done, it will reduce all the stems of the year leaving nothing but a base of 2 to 3 cm, as well as the suppression of dead wood and suckers on the trunk.
The extension can be applied to all forms and to all tree species. This pruning consists of removing all shoots and suckers and retaining no more than one. This selected bud is smoweed onto one or more sleeping buds that will give future prolongation. It is possible to control the volume development of the crown by playing with the length of the extensions, their orientation, their number and the frequency of pruning. Complementary operations are the suppression of dead wood and suckers on the trunk.
The pruning is a maintenance pruning associated with species with natural growth downwards type pendula (Salix sp., Schinus sp., Morus alba var. pendula, Sophora japonica var. pendula, etc.), excessive natural growth (Ficus macrocarpa, Ficus benjamina, Ficus elastica, etc.), low-bearing species (Acaciacyanophylla, Acacia dealbata, Bauhinia sp., etc.), etc.
By definition, living things are continually adapting to our changing environment. In this case, the pruning of adaptation is not the one that adapts from the younger stages of the tree, quite the opposite. Since we have not carried out the pruning of formation and conservation we must adapt the silhouette of the tree to the place where it was chosen to locate, that is, it is the payment of past errors: trees planted too close to the facades, branches too low that “do not respect” the step of pedestrians and/or cars, etc. In any case this type of pruning should be exceptional.
Adaptation pruning consists of modifying or adjusting a part of the tree volume while preserving its usual silhouette and operation, otherwise we would be talking about a conversion pruning.
It’s important to look for solutions rather than having to resort to them. For example, when you have to prune to free the view, it is preferable to increase the space between branches, or create windows in the foliage, than to belatedly raise a crown or head the tree, unfortunately common practices, which in case it is done will be very it is important to be aware of the maximum cutting diameter so as not to weaken the tree and adapt to the optimal pruning period.
In the case of structured forms, NaturClimb re-starts to protect cat heads, an important place of the reserves of its tree.
The more the length of a branch increases, the less volume can be removed from its foliage. When the reduction of a branch involves the suppression of more than half of the foliage, it is better to suppress the entire branch in its insertion. The 25% reduction will be traumatic for the tree.
Otherwise, the usual will be that the tree itself will die and dry that branch, which will cost it at the energy level the time that elapses as a non-functional branch. This is one of the reasons why after certain interventions, after a year, we find dry branches in the structure of the tree. Once we can branch, the tree must be rebalanced at the energy level and redistribute flows, prioritizing those that it believes will have the best chance of developing successfully.
Likewise, NaturClimb reaffirms that abrupt exposures to light and therefore to direct sunstroke of those branches that had developed in the shade should be avoided, limiting the risks of burns of the bark, which has in many high prices, such as cracks, chancros, etc.
The cultural operations that NaturClimb performs in the adaptation pruning work are:
- Reduction of branches too long, adapting them to the volume of the tree within the available space, making it on sacasavia, the choice is made according to the mode of hypotonous or epiton branching mode. For example, species of the genus Quercus are epitons so the upper branch will be respected against the downed branch or the cutting of the branches that descend on which they rise will be prioritized. In case there are many repeat units on both sides you can clean the lower face of the branch and clear the upper one.
- The selection of outbreaks and the elimination of suckers the year after the reduction is often necessary. This will consist of preserving those that can potentially become sacasavias, and eliminating those that are annoying or in excessive quantity.
- Suppression of branches if the adaptation concerns the height of the crown, so that if the diameter is not of great importance, cut these to the base.
The nature and intensity of the adaptation pruning that NaturClimb performs, determines them taking into account the following factors:
- The preferences the customer has
- As the tree has been pruned (semi-free or structured)
- Vigor of the tree
- Ability of the species to be compartmentalized
- The restrictions of the place where it is located in relation to the volume to be respected
As mentioned above, adaptation pruning should not significantly change the operation of the tree, i.e. it should not be disturbed globally. Otherwise we would be talking about conversion pruning.
In some cases, NaturClimb is forced to prune, as it is practically the only solution. These cases may include:
- Correct errors of landscape conception and estimation of tree volume
- Having to adapt the tree to new conditions of the medium, such as the restriction of the available air volume
- Change the management mode to reduce maintenance costs incurred from the desired a priori model
As in the case of adaptation pruning, conversion pruning should remain exceptional, as the risks of tree weakening can be high. NaturClimb advises you to make a diagnosis about the mechanical condition, such as the health status of the cat heads, insertion of future branches, etc., because as just mentioned, the change of state and management of the tree, will lead displacement of reserve storage areas, mechanical frailty of certain parts of the tree, widespread weakening, etc. Therefore, NaturClimb advises to convert only into vigorous trees that can respond quickly to the change in aerial morphology.
NaturClimb reminds you again that species are suitable for having a high degree of compartmentalization such as lindens, bananas, oaks, maples, carpes, pine pines, etc. where cuts of up to 10 centimeters can be applied without causing a great mismatch to the tree. On the contrary, those with little compartmentalization such as chestnut trees, willows, sophages, birch trees, poplars, ash, etc. where cuts of more than 5 centimeters should not be applied if we do not want to cause a great mismatch to the tree.
The two types of conversion to be performed are:
1. From a structured way to a free or semi-free form
As a result of the two World Wars that France went through, we can find mostly in castles, large hamlets or mansions, large trees such as bananas, oaks, lindens, etc. that at the time followed a guided model, either by catheads well by crumble for different uses (food for cattle in summer, firewood, etc.) and which were completely abandoned to their fate, that is, they stopped pruning.
Today we find ourselves as from these points of accumulation of reserves, these trees departed to the sky choosing over time which branches would dominate the remaining ones from each cat’s head. Currently they have weights more than 30 meters high, when the cat heads were less than 5 meters. (See Restoring Abandoned Shapes).
- If the tree is young, this conversion is quite fast and will leave virtually no long-term mark.
- If the tree is of a certain age and has been with this cultural treatment for a long time, this conversion is slow.
- In no case will the cat heads be suppressed, these will be reabsorbed with the passage of time by the very thickening of the trunk, some trace of the previous cultural method may remain in the long term.
- It is preferable to choose trees with small cat heads (30 cm).
- It is advisable to avoid important lever arms between the cat heads and the trunk; preferably choose a support wood that has a diameter greater than 2/3 of the diameter of the jack head.
2. From a free or semi-free form to a structured form
NaturClimb warns you that with this conversion you run the risk of causing serious damage to a well-developed tree and once reached, you will incur high maintenance costs.
It is really only possible for young specimens and for certain species with a high adaptability, especially those with a high degree of compartmentalization and ability to produce sapavias, by cuts less than 5-10 cm in diameter without inducing the fork to big changes. In any other circumstance, NaturClimb will advise you not to carry out the conversion, because in this case we are plowing the future felling and attachment of the tree foot.
RESTRUCTURE THE ABANDONED FORMS
The abandonment of conservation pruning, whether in a semi-free or structured form, has its repercussions:
- Once-deleted or regularly reduced outbreak-free growth
- Migration of starch stocks from catheads to the base of buds in the case of a structured way
- Transformation of the hierarchy between the axes, appearance of dominated structures, decays and dead
Over time, abandoned forms move further and further away from their initial form (training pruning and conservation pruning). The possibility of restoring abandoned forms in new forms comparable to the objectives and limitations of a site depends on the health, physiological and mechanical status of the trees.
Aerial development of an ancient use in the head of willow in an oak tree.
The restructuring pruning aims to have the mutilated tree progressively reach a structure compatible with the aforementioned conservation pruning modalities. In the event that it cannot be performed, due to the health or mechanical condition of the tree, when demanding aggressive actions, etc. NaturClimb will advise you to leave the tree as it is or knock it down if obvious risks will be revealed after diagnosis mechanical state (cavities, fissures, pathogenic elements and parasites, etc.).
Similarly, a vigorous and mechanically well-conditioned tree should never undergo a restructuring pruning aimed at aggressively reducing its volume. Substitution for another species more adapted to the available space and your expectations would be the best solution. We are too ill-accustomed to seeing pruning that drastically reduces the volume of the tree by having these a large size but being in perfect condition before the massacre.
It is normal for the tree to be resurrected in many cases through the sleeping buds, a defense they have developed after thousands of years, and also that by losing much of the foliar volume from which it managed to live after being subjected to cuts of large branches , generate in response to the tree’s need to quickly balance the amount of conductive tissue (albura) with the amount of foliar mass and adsorbent root mass the forced duramen, that is, to convert a large part of living tissue into dead. This will be a great feast for xylophageal fungi, which will undoubtedly colonize and weaken the tree. See exceptional pruning.
The Trenching or Relegation of Cup
NaturClimb advises that except for cases of ecological or historical interest, do not carry out any type of intervention of restructuring of elderly senescent trees, that present processes of regression and / or entrenchment with high risk of falling. It will always be preferable to establish a security perimeter, to strengthen branches by artificial maintenance system if after a thorough diagnosis it is believed relevant or else, its felling and ape.
NaturClimb takes the opportunity to cite the interesting conclusions gathered by Drénou in 1995: “The cup descent is not a development phase, it is a means of defense as a reaction to a stress, and this capacity decreases over time.
The cup descent has been associated for a long time with aging, because it is rare for a tree to become very old without having reacted one day to a disturbance of the medium expressing said canopy descent.
However, this case study shows, on the contrary, that when the ability to make a cup descent disappears is when senescence begins and the death of the tree becomes inevitable.”
Entrenchment or fall of cup in reaction to a stressful situation.
Examples of Entrenchment
The photograph belongs to the same specimen from different angles. It can be seen how this specimen develops several strips. They do not give rise to the doubt that they will replace the current structure in a situation of entrenchment or fall of the cup. It is a clear example of the conclusions reached by Drénou.
In the photograph on the left you can see a process of loss of bark and rot of the main axis of the tree. This specimen, located in a stand of oaks (Quercus alba), is not the only case that presents this state of vigor in decline. After consulting with countrymen, the oaks that are dated between 150-200 years old, are suffering this situation of stress. In the face of water scarcity accompanied by much milder winters, the maximum minimum temperatures have increased and periods of intense colds have also been reduced.
After taking this photo, where in the second fork you can see large bumps, NaturClimb climbed to the tree. He eliminated completely dry and high-risk structures of falling on a path that runs under his glass. You can see the old cuts made of great dimension. Once again NaturClimb reminds you that oversized cuts lead to the tree’s weakening. This situation promotes the entry of pathogens and parasites into the tree.
Entrenchment and renovation of adult oak specimens. The Luberon, France.
RESTRUCTURE MUTILID FORMS
The possibility of restructuring the mutilated forms depends on the health, physiological and mechanical status of the trees. These pruning can only be performed after a final diagnosis. Given the importance of the damage they have suffered, or must suffer, certain trees cannot be restructured and felling is advised.
You can’t restructure a mutilated tree like it’s a destroyed house. The pruning action can only gradually re-form a new form compatible with the modalities of the conservation pruning, always guaranteeing its safety and that of users and goods. In many situations, mutilated forms will continue, even after restructuring work.
After trauma, there is first a reaction phase (anarchic production of shoots and suckers), and then a substitution stage (organization within the population of outbreaks and suckers). The duration of these two stages depends on the importance of trauma and the aging status of the tree.
NaturClimb advises in case of making the decision to perform restructuring pruning to begin once the first phase has clearly passed, in order not to weaken the tree any more.
The main cultural operations that NaturClimb performs during the restructuring pruning work are:
- Selection of branches, shoots and suckers that develop on healthy parts. Your choice is based on the shape you want to give back to the tree.
- Suppression of dead and decayed branches, root buds, stuthes, suckers on the trunk and the base of the main branches.
- Recovery of broken branches and old cuts.
- Stretch of the main branches in the desired direction. Particular attention shall be paid to the choice of the sacasavias and the epitone or hypotonous character of the tree species concerned.
- Disposal of rotting wood should not be done if it breaks natural barriers from the tree against the entry of parasitic agents. That is, the tree must be allowed time to execute its natural protective barriers, except in the event that the risk of falling is obvious.
- Water-filled cavities should not be drained or covered with objects foreign to the biology of the tree. Water stagnation prevents the development of fungi and the entry of other agents. One of the main reasons for the mycelium established in the wood to develop the cartophore or fruiting body (mushroom), is precisely to remove through the conductive vessels of this, the water accumulated inside the wood, favoring the conditions of gaseous exchange with the outside.
Not all species have the same means of defense in the event of heavy trauma. The chances of restructuring are therefore different depending on the species concerned. The ability to form buds can be zero (large number of conifers), scarce (beech, birch, etc.) or large (platanes, willows, oaks, etc.).
Certain species of softwood lumber (Indian chestnut, poplar, linden, ash, etc.) have a strong propensity for internal rot. In others (roble, chestnut, walnut, etc.), the wood is hard and rot develops more slowly.
When the trees are in an urban area, we have to react to the situation that the trees may create, regarding the place and people, thus, in the case of lifeless branches, they should be removed, because they are a possible future concern.
Risk prevention pruning consists of suppressing weak parts of the tree likely to break and a high risk of falling. Also, the tree can behave large dead wood, especially in the case of trees that are entrenching or senescent or that have important mechanical defects (cracks, inclusive bark, cavities, etc.).
Interestingly, these pruning are exceptionally preventive in nature and in this case would apply to isolated specimens and/or are affected by particularly strong wind conditions.
If pruning is very severe, NaturClimb will advise you in many cases to cut and down. Another solution, already cited for senescent tree cases, will be to delimit a security perimeter that prevents people from accessing the fall hazard zone.
Contrary to the principle of conservation pruning, the goal is to anticipate limiting and reducing the risk of rupture of a part of the tree that does not doubt its mechanical condition. So, it should not be applied preventively on healthy trees, or on trees that do not have significant and obvious mechanical defects. With this type of pruning, there is a risk of causing the opposite effect in healthy trees, causing weaknesses in the tree.
Continuing these premises, NaturClimb advises that before performing this type of pruning, make a diagnosis of the phytosanitary and mechanical condition.
On those trees that present cavities, NaturClimb advises you to carry out an inventory of fauna to avoid destroying the ecological niche of species that will only be installed in this type of structures. The way to do this will be either from the ground, or climbing and checking the status and activity of these.
Each type of intervention must be justified for each particular case, avoiding accelerating the health and/ or mechanical condition of trees that are already with certain difficulties or stresses.
In any case, risk prevention pruning should not lead to future mechanical problems in the tree.
The main cultural operations that NaturClimb carries out during the risk prevention pruning work are:
- Reduction and/or disposal of dead wood
- Reduction and/or removal of torn, broken or poorly inserted branches (including in certain particular cases)
In certain cases, a simple lightening of a large branch by reduction made on a get-sap on a fragile axis may be sufficient to ensure a good level of safety. While this phrase cannot be generalized, in some cases, as has already been discussed in others; if we eliminate in the reduction more than 50% of the foliage of the branch it is preferable to reduce it in its main insertion, and equally on the strips we should consider that this has at least a quarter of the caliber of the branch on which we are making the Reduction.
Otherwise, there is a risk that the tree will end up drying the branch that apparently had a high chance of survival. While we arborists strive to understand the behavior of trees, they become as complex as that of people, so that it depends not only on their age and history, but on all the factors that interrelate at this time; with the difference that the tree does not sue us or need us in most cases, we are the ones who adapt it to our needs and expectations in almost every situation.
ZOOM ON SENESCENT TREES OR AGED TREES
NaturClimb makes another small section, taking advantage of having this small corner, to cite the case of senescent or aged trees.
This is what defines as the fourth state of development in the life of a tree: youth, adult, mature and senescent. These trees are characterized by weak growth. Short branches, little branching, wounds do not come to heal. There is almost no annual growth of the scarce branches, they are not able to produce branches that replace those lost, reduced or cut parts, etc.
In short, their vigor is really scarce, they are as the word itself says, aged.
Almond (Prunus dulcis) senescent. A flowered part of the tortuous tree and another part composed of dead branches of different caliber can be seen.
Any removal of living parts is particularly penalized by the tree and reduces the life expectancy of the tree. Within the possible and limits of its safety and the rest of people, the elimination of dead wood should be avoided, as it is a great support for a wide variety of living beings to develop and that in its degradation processes produces organic matter that enrich the tree’s own inner cavities will burn.
Today, there is a broad community of scientists and researchers from the field of treated: T. Green, G. Passolas, etc. They postulate that trees use fungi to empty. Therefore, they are more flexible to wind onslaughts and recycle all the wood imprisoned in their own log. It is what we call recycling and serves you for consumption.
It is a vision of the fungus as an occupant of tissues in regression, rather than as a parasite. It is certainly spreading among the community of arborists. NaturClimb, according to this current, believes that the actual role of tree fungi is yet to be revealed. All this, within the fourth industrial revolution, where nanotechnology and robotics occupy practically all the attention of society and markets.
No human being is able to predict the remaining life time of a senescent tree. They can be lustrum, decades or centuries, depending on the species, if it does not suffer violent disturbances.
Almond(Prunus dulcis) that has reached the end of its life cycle.
As mentioned above, a senescent tree is usually preceded by an entrenching phase. There will be a fall in the crown and a significant production of suckers on the trunk and the base of the main non-senescent branches. The act of the tree rethinking in this way, is in most cases, in a situation of stress and adaptation to a situation changing to the environment where it lives. Therefore, it must be strong enough to carry it out. This decay is temporary and reversible. An aged and senescent tree does not have enough energy to react in this way.
Prunes that let stop the proliferation of pests and illnesses.
The sanitary pruning carried out by NaturClimb aims to eliminate the sick parts. They are performed to prevent their spread by contagion and eliminate those branches accompanied by mechanical defects. These diseased parts are chancre-carrying branches, defoliating larvae nests, xylophage insect-deformed axes, etc.
NaturClimb therefore advises you to make a phytosanitary diagnosis. Where the pathogen and parasite are identified, the severity and impact of it and the risks to the tree and to you. To do this, it is important to track throughout the development cycle of the agent or agents that are interacting.
Certain parasitic problems are classified by administration as “quarantined/quarantined parasites” and must be subject to mandatory fighting. For example, the colored chancre. In any case, require your tree technician to have a justified and documented diagnosis.
Disinfection of work tools should be mandatory upon completion and/or commencement of any pruning work. In sanitary pruning the cutting tools have acted and act as a propagation agent.
See disinfection of cutting tools.
They are, harsh prunes with the aim of reducing the volume of the treetops, which only responds to sanitary issues, or to prevent the risk of falling branches. Therefore, frequently we use safety prune’s terms to carry out these types of prunes in the case of falling risk (on houses, power lines, roads, etc.).
We may distinguish three types of exceptional prunes:
- Tree tearing. It means to get rid of one third part of the length branches.
- Pollarding. It answers to a more radical action, because the branches are cut from the main stem. It is normally the previous action taken before the cut down of the tree.
- Treetop chop off, which consists of cutting down all the highest part of the element we have.
We have to bear in mind that, according to the current criteria for a good praxis, it is not recommendable to remove over 10% of the treetop volume at once, even though we could reach a 15/20% without any harm for the tree, it may affect its balance regarding its sanitary and growing state. All depends on the specie, the ecological placement and location as well as its adaptation capability.
All this means that, not all species have the same reaction to the prunes, having in mind that the prunes are carried out in the appropriate season, also, not all trees are acclimatized to the same place and weather, as it depends on their own characteristics and the kind of ground.
NaturClimb applies this type of prunes to deciduous trees, in really extreme cases, as in most situations, there are better solutions for these problems. Even though the tree gets well in a few years, normally this procedure means the weakening of it, and the new sprouts get the same size in a short period as they were before the prune, but mechanically, they would not be very trust-worthy, so they create a risky situation.
In a general way it can be said that all those processes that generate weakened or regressive wood involve generating opportunities for the colonization of specific fungi depending on the deteriorating tissues generated or exposed.
These processes that generate weakened wood can be very evident: drastic pruning, the removal of woody roots; or very inconspicuous as the anoxia processes produced by excess water or compaction.
Some fungi that are considered especially aggressive, for sensitive guests, require a “very low” level of opportunity. More saprotrophic, however, require larger “doors or opportunities.”
Drastic pruning involves removing all photosynthetic mass from a tree. Its loss is balanced by the tree eliminating, practically in a total way, the associated albura. It is as a result of the new growth that the albura will increase (starting from the cambium), in the same proportion as the growth of the photosynthetic mass (vitality).
However, all the wood that was active before the injury (pruning) has now become disconnected, inactive and dead wood. This wood is colonizable by the characteristic fungi of the species in question. In these cases, the tree does not have time to manufacture a real or progressive “duramen”. It is simply abandoned wood and much more digestible: forced duramen. This forced duramen or abandoned wood is colonizable by many types of fungi; more than those who regularly access progressive duramen or forced hardening. For these cases there is a certain specificity.
In the example above, the tree has managed to emit some buds from the sleeping buds. However, the effect achieved by the pruner has been the death sentence of the specimen. Sometimes we arborists find it difficult to differentiate between ignorance and lack of sensitivity, although in many cases they add up.
Trees are more adapted or accustomed to breaking and tearing than to being cut with tools. Tearing and breakage are deeply associated with the “normal” life of trees.
Trees need to remove structures they no longer use: dead and/or dry or deteriorated branches. They are almost the only way for the tree to remove large branches. For example, in branch breaks in cup descent processes. What’s called: tree entrenchment.
In addition, they can also use this process to facilitate survival against natural onslaughts: the breakage of green branches. For these situations, tearing or tearing is a good solution.
Trees are prepared for breakage; is the natural way to break.
The soft pruning (less than 1/3 of the cup) is pruned in green, carried out with the foliage fully developed and made during the summer period.
Green pruning has great advantages over hibernal pruning (for cases that do not involve drastic reductions).
Most types of pruning, the best time to perform is during the vegetative season. Pruning that involves a very significant removal of leaf (productive areas of the tree) such as tertiary, pinched or drastic cut-offs should be limited to the hibernal era.
It is a conservation pruning of a guided or structured form. Delimited geometric structures are formed that require very important regular maintenance.
FRUIT TREE PRUNING
With experience in various species of fruit trees, such as fig, apple, pear, almond, cherry, etc.
NaturClimb offers this service focused mainly on exemplary elements that require respectful care and pruning.
Pruning fruit trees. Almond
WHERE TO CUT WHEN COMPLETELY NECESSARY?
It would be interesting to remember that the tree does not need our intervention. Pruning is done to meet maintenance needs. Among arborists it is often said that when it is necessary to start the chainsaw is because something has already been done wrong. An inadequate chosen species, a bad location, etc. Training pruning can be done with a hand saw; they apply to small-caliber branches; less than 5 centimeters in diameter.
However, in a context where pruning is completely justified, it will be recommended:
- Eliminate aged structures before vigorous axes and buds. These are the last efforts the tree has made to renovate its structure.
- At the top of the cup, privilege a pruning just above a reserve accumulation point. It is the element called a fork; at the base of hierarchical units. It will favor a reaction right in the wound area. It will prevent the formation of a stump, accompanied by possible rot.
- Prune preferably small diameter branches and twigs rather than remove large branches.
- Before removing a branch, reduce it and wait for the trunk to increase in diameter.
- Privilege a pruning at the bottom of the treetop rather than at the top.
DISINFECTION OF CUTTING TOOLS. WHY DISINFECT, WHEN AND WHAT PRODUCT TO USE
Cutting tools should be disinfected between each cut and whenever deemed necessary. Specifically, after having worked on a sick tree; that is infected by micelle of a fungus that affects the health and mechanical condition of the tree. There is a risk of transmitting it by using the cutting tools later.
The products used to disinfect cutting tools are:
- Alcohol at 60 degrees
- Ethanol at 70 degrees
- Diluted bleach to 0.5% active chlorine. For five liters of cold water add a liter of bleach to 2.6% or a 9.6% cup.
It is convenient to let the product stay a few minutes in the chain of the chain saw. In the same way for the saw slat to ensure its effectiveness. It is also advisable to spray the product inside the protective guide.
If disinfection is carried out with an approved plant protection product:
- Treatments in general, disinfection of premises and materials for bactericidal cultural use. No11016301
- Treatments in general, disinfection of premises and materials for fungicide cultural use. No11016201
- Treatments in general, disinfection of premises and materials for virucide cultural use. No11016401
The list of plant protection products and their uses can be found in